… not all moaning, twitching, agitation or other new symptoms near the end of life are due to ‘terminal restlessness’. See the summary on delirium at end-of-life. slides 7-8-9 list common things that might be going on slides 10-11-12-13 give some (non-pharmacologic) inteventions to try A common cause of new symptoms (twitching, restlessness, moaning) or …
… are best managed on a case-by-case basis after thorough evaluation, in general using behavioral approaches (not drugs). Some resources … An excellent monograph from the Alzheimer’s Assoc. A slide-set from the Int’l Pyscho-Geriatric Assoc. More than you want to know … including a primary care guide. A BPSD Handout.
… please visit the recently added summary of delirium at end-of-life on the hospice pall med page.